OSTİM Technical University Rector Prof. Dr. Murat Yülek’s book “The Rise of Nations: Manufacturing, Trade, Industrial Policy and Economic Development”, which attracted great attention in the year it was published and referred to in many scientific studies, is followed by English and Turkish; Published in Chinese.

prof. Dr. Murat Yülek’s book, which tracks the issues that the world pursues the most, especially in the age we live in, met with readers in Chinese, the Asian giant China.

Yulek is the Chinese translation of Rise of Nations, published by Tsinghua University, the leader of the Asian Universities ranking, one of the most prestigious educational institutions in the world, 13th in the World’s Best Universities in 2020 and 20th in 2021; reported that it was recommended as one of the most important books on the wechat platform THINKTANK and ranked among the top 10 books worth reading.

“Passed by Independent Arbitrator”

of the book; Noting that he is also on another wechat platform that focuses on sharing the best articles and books in China, Prof. Dr. Murat Yülek, regarding its translation into Chinese and its publication in China, said, “I am delighted that a leading university in the world rankings bought such a book, translated it, published it, then recommended it and nominated it as the best book of the year. It has been understood that this book, which was handed by an independent referee, is useful information for the people of the world.” made his comment. Saying that the next edition of the book will be in Afghan language, Yulek added that he wishes to have translations in Arabic and Portuguese as well.

How Was Industrialization Made?

In her book, Yülek, who traces the issues that the world pursues the most, especially in our age, says, “How was industrialization carried out step by step in both the old and the new world order before and after the geographical discoveries? What strategies were employed on the way to colonization? How did advanced industrial countries develop so much? Where is Turkey in industrialization? Which industrial and technology policies are suitable for Turkey? What does localization do? looking for answers to questions.

prof. Dr. In addition to answering these questions, Murat Yülek also opens up another very ambitious issue in depth in his book: “Even though industrialization is economically beneficial and necessary for development, it requires a very costly, risky and complex process. On the other hand, no industrialization process is a coincidence in the modern age or before. This is why the need for industrial policies arises.”

Countries’ Success Methods

While the first part of the book, which consists of three parts, examines the history of industry and international trade, how today’s industrialized countries have achieved this is explained based on historical facts. In the second part, while the production and trade balance issues are discussed, it is focused on why industrial production is necessary for development, the economic and commercial importance of the manufacturing industry, who produces industrial production in the world and who exports what. The current account balance from the added value, production that does not make money in the smile curve, why the increase in productivity will not be enough to achieve development, branding and technology, industry and industrial policies are discussed in a broad framework.

In the last part of the book, industrial policies and industrialization processes are explained. The definition of the standardized industrialization process, the most appropriate industrial policies for the industrialization stages, the topics of the section from Airbus and Saab on how South Korea established its automobile and nuclear reactor industries.

How Did South Korea Succeed?

The book explains industrialization at a global and national level in a fluent language with important comparisons and historical facts. The example of South Korea, which is perhaps the most mentioned in Turkey’s industrialization adventure, is among the highlights. In this title of the book, there are remarkable findings regarding the comparison of the two countries.

In the Rise of Nations, which has a fluent language, the following views are summarized: “Which dilemmas did South Korea encounter in the development process, and with which policies did it overcome them? Which policies have been effective and which policies have not? What kind of institutional structure has been effective in policy development and implementation? The answers to such questions can be an example for Turkey and other developing countries in policy design and implementation.

Four important conclusions can be drawn from this comparison, which is also common in Turkey. First; South Korea opened up to export from Turkey (1980s) twenty years ago and learned by exporting (learning-by-exporting). In this process, South Korea also implemented import substitution policies, although it is not official, and gave the opportunity to ‘learn by doing’ to industrial companies in the possible domestic market.

The second important difference is industrial policies. South Korea has pursued more focused sectoral industry and public procurement policies compared to Turkey. As a result, South Korea achieved more successful results in areas such as automotive, electronics and steel, despite lower opportunities.

Thirdly, South Korea has a more successful and focused education system compared to Turkey. South Korea has given importance to education since the end of the 19th century. It is currently among the most successful countries in the world in terms of educational outcomes, as demonstrated by PISA scores. In addition, South Korea provided overseas education support focused on technological fields. Research engineers who received their education abroad; were employed in competent research centers in fields such as transportation vehicles, nuclear energy, aviation, electronics, with satisfactory wages.

The fourth important factor is the higher state and private sector ‘capacities’ in South Korea. Industrialization is a process of capacity accumulation for both the (developmental) state and the private sector. Both are higher in South Korea than in Turkey. The public sector has been determined and successful in designing and guiding industrial policies.”

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